Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is the most common congenital heart malformation. Most often there is one opening located basally at the level of the membranous part of the interventricular septum, may exist isolated or associated with other defects, as part of complex congenital heart defects.


  • Interaction of genetic factors and environmental factors.
  • Different teratogenic factors during pregnancy like hypoxia, ionizing radiation, some medications


  • Most common asymptomatic (minor septal defect).
  • Poor tolerance of physical effort, fatigue (a significant septal defect)
  • In the advanced stage, by progression of the pulmonary vascular obstructive disease and the appearance of the right-left shunt results in cyanosis (blue colour, too much blue coloration). Fatigue rapidly occurs, and syncope (short-term loss of consciousness) may occur, as well as haemoptysis (coughing up of the blood) and anginous pain in the chest
  • Diagnosis
  • Clinical examination
  • ECG, RTG, ultrasound examination of the heart and catheterization of the heart.


  • Surgical treatment with a more significant left-right shunt (Optimal time for surgery is pre-school age of children, but the results are good for patients in adult life if there is no developed pulmonary hypertension and shunt reversal)
  • An alternative is the transcatetric closing of centrally placed defects using a special double-umbrella shutter (clamshell)

Antibiotic prophylaxis of bacterial endocarditis

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